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Cardiometabolic diseases are the number one cause of death in Australia and globally.1 An estimated 646,000 years of healthy life have been lost in 2018 due to all forms of cardiovascular disease,2 with these numbers continuing to increase at an alarming rate.3 The regulatory network of cardiometabolic dysfunction has a distinct architecture, with multi-system drivers throughout specific organs and organ systems, cells, and the genome. Cross-talk between the metabolome and the microbiome is part of this network, communicating via secondary metabolites such as triethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), secondary bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and aromatic amino acids. Innovative cardiometabolic plasma markers can detect disruptions to the metabolome and microbiome years before clinical manifestation of disease. The confirmation of prodromal stages in dysfunction suggests an opportunity for early therapeutic intervention and even prevention. This presentation will discuss: • How specific herbs and nutrients are metabolised and their corresponding key target pathways • The role of secondary metabolites and the microbiome in cardiometabolic health • Identification of subtle nuances in pathology markers to determine cardiometabolic risk at various stages of dysfunction • Clinical presentations and recognition of early warning signs of dysfunction References 1. CSIRO Nutrition & Health. Cardiometabolic Health. n.d. Retrieved from: https://research.csiro.au/nutritionandhealth/research-groups/nutrition-and-health-substantiation/our-science/cardiometabolic-health/ 2. Australian Institute of Health & Welfare. Heart, stroke and vascular disease-Australian facts. 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/heart-stroke-vascular-diseases/hsvd-facts/contents/impacts/burden-of-cardiovascular-disease 3. Roth GA et al. Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990-2019: Update From the GBD 2019 Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76(25): 2982-3021. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2020.1101
Since 2020, it is estimated that over 600 million people globally have been infected with SARS-CoV-2(1). With the increasing number of infections, there are emerging trends of some individuals who do not improve, showing symptoms even after the acute infection has resolved. These cases have been termed “long haulers”, with the multi-system lingering symptoms now known as long-covid. Currently, 1 in 20 Australians experience symptoms three months post-infection(2), and this figure is expected to increase. With research continuously developing, we now have a significantly different understanding of the virus since the start of the pandemic. In this seminar, the latest developments and understanding of SARS-CoV-2 will be discussed, with emerging evidence on Post–COVID-19 conditions (PCC), also known as long covid. We will explore how our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 has changed since the beginning of the pandemic. Variants of concern will be discussed, along with the emerging evidence surrounding reinfections. Topics covered will include: * The key role of innate immunity in health, and the defence mechanisms within the body when posed with a viral threat. * The mechanisms behind key symptomatology and risk factors of PCC or long COVID. * Herbs, nutrients, dietary, and lifestyle interventions to support immune health and wellbeing. 1. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. 2022. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/ 2. UNSW Sydney. One in 20 COVID-19 cases report long-term symptoms. 2021. Available from: https://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/health/one-20-covid-19-cases-report-long-term-symptoms
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